Monday, 16 January 2017

Advertising Mackeson

I’m feeling lazy again. So just a brief post about Mackeson. One of my myriad of beer-related obsessions.

As I’ve told you many times before, Mackeson was a huge brand in the 1950’s and was probably Whitbread’s biggest seller. Hard as that might be to imagine today. Though this advert might well help explain that.


Because it’s obviously aimed at women. A clever move, as it doubles your potential market. Though, as with most adverts written by men but aimed at women, it’s pretty sexist and condescending.

Here’s the text:

“Some people prefer MACKESON’S Stout
it’s a matter of taste
Generally, stout has a slightly bitter taste. But Mackeson’s mellow smoothness comes as pleasing change to many who take a rich, reviving glass after the long day’s housework is over.

Try it, and taste the difference!

BREWED AND BOTTLED BY WHITBREAD
Suppliers for the County:
Fredk. Lenay & Sons Ltd., Phoenix Brewery, Wateringbury, Maidstone, Kent.”
Kent & Sussex Courier - Friday 28 July 1950, page 7.

Note, too, how the emphasis is on it not being bitter like other Stouts.  One of the things that surprised mw in “The Pub and the People” about 1930’s Bolton was who was drinking bottled Guinness: middle-aged women. So the idea of women drinking Stout wasn’t particularly new. Though here it’s a very middle-class looking woman drinking in the safety of her home.

Sunday, 15 January 2017

Whitbread’s brewery in 1960 (part five)

I’m concluding our little glimpse into Chiswell Street. I hope you’ve enjoyed it as much as me.

Whitbread, beginning in the interwar years, was a major player in the improved public house. Though in the early years improvements often met resistance from the licensing authorities. Hypocritical temperance members didn’t want pubs to be better, more social places. They wanted them to be dismal dens of vice because that made them easier to campaign against. After WW II this disruptive behaviour seems to have mostly ended, leaving breweries a freer rein to improve and enlarge pubs.

“The Second World War necessarily brought about a great change in both the social structure of the nation and in its drinking habits. Restrictions on building and the shortages of supplies and materials greatly affected brewers as they were unable to carry out maintenance or repair work on their own public-houses. As soon as restrictions were lifted brewing companies found it necessary to spend vast sums in renovating existing pubs as well as building new ones. Whitbread's were quick to take up the challenge. In 1949, they reorganised their finances and floated a public issue of shares to give them a sound financial structure in readiness for expansion and development. In the same year, they employed a firm of industrial designers to advise on the redecoration of a number of their public-houses, and created what are now known as "theme" houses. The first of these was the Nag's Head in Covent Garden, which attracts many visitors from overseas as well as those who work in the locality. In its new decor, prints, pictures and other items of interest are used to trace the history of Covent Garden and of the two Theatres Royal. Six other theme houses followed within the next few years. They were The Yorker in Piccadilly (with the theme of cricket); The Railway Tavern, Liverpool Street (British Railways); The Sherlock Holmes, Northumberland Street (Conan Doyle's detective) The Coach and Eight at Putney (rowing), and The Printer's Devil, Fetter Lane (the history of printing). At the same time equal care was being paid to the redecoration and rebuilding of other pubs, the most famous of which is The Samuel Whitbread, in Leicester Square.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

Wartime building restrictions, which continued well after the war’s end, were a big headache for brewers. Many, especially those based in London, had pubs damaged or even destroyed by bombing. But it was difficult to get permission for repairs or rebuilding.

Was this the start of theme pubs? I bet you’d like to know what happened to them.

The Nag's Head in Covent Garden, 10 James St, is still trading with the same name. It's currently a McMullens pub. http://www.mcmullens.co.uk/nagshead

The Yorker at 189 Piccadilly, formerly called the Yorkshire Grey, renamed in 1955. Currently a restaurant.

The Railway Tavern, 15 Liverpool Street, is still there and still retians the name. I recognise it because I've drunk there in the past.

The Sherlock Holmes, 10 Northumberland Street, is also still around under the same name.

The Coach and Eight, 167 Upper Richmond Road Putney, is currently trading as the Fox and Hounds.

The Printers Devil, 98 Fetter Lane, was another still operating under its theme name, until its closure a few years ago.

The Samuel Whitbread, 17-18 Leicester Square, was built in 1958 and closed around 1970. It was Whitbread's flagship pub, opened with much fanfare. It didn't last that long. Boak & Bailey wrote about it recently. http://boakandbailey.com/2014/07/the-launch-and-sinking-of-a-flagship/

Some more general stuff next:

“To-day, Whitbread's, which employ more than 6,000 people, own five breweries, including Mackeson's at Hythe (birth-place of Mackeson Stout). They have also recently entered into association with more than twenty brewing companies in Britain. In Norfolk, Whitbread  have their own maltings, and in Kent they have both maltings and hopfields; most of the ancient oast houses in Kent having been fitted with oil furnaces to replace coke fires. Another innovation at the hopfields is the spraying by helicopters to control pests and diseases.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

Which five breweries would they be? I thought they owned more by then. Or maybe I’m thinking of breweries under the Whitbread Umbrella. Checking, it seems Whitbread had purchased 8 breweries between 1920 and 1958, most of them quite small. Their buying spree started in 1961.

The brewery at Hythe didn’t stay open that much longer, despite being the birthplace of one of Whitbread’s biggest brands.

Finally, some more pretty pictures:


“Two coopers are repairing casks. The company employs sixteen coopers who are masters of their craft; there's also an apprentice coopers' school.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.



“In the Mill Room, the malt is cracked between steel rollers before being passed to cases above the mash tuns. There are four machines, each of which is capable of cracking 240 bushels of malt per hour.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.
“The filling of casks is known in the brewery as "racking". In this picture the men are "racking" Best Ale in the cellars.”The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

Pretty sure the gyle number on those casks of Best Ale is 348. Which means, assuming the photo is from 1960, it must have been sometime in May. I reckon the beer was brewed on 19th May. It would have been racked 5 or 6 days later. So my guess is the photo is from 24th or 25th May.

“Below: Soldier and Sailor, two of thirty shire horses employed to deliver beer within a three-mile radius of the brewery.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

Now wasn’t that fun?

Saturday, 14 January 2017

Let's Brew - 1917 Thomas Usher 54/- Stout

You can probably guess where I’ve got to with Thomas Usher’s brewing logs. Currently, I’m knee-deep in WW I mud.

1917 was a funny year in British brewing. At its start, gravities hadn’t changed much since the war began. They’d dropped a few points but nothing too significant. Once the unrestricted U-boat campaign started to bite, the government took drastic action and gravities began to tumble. The second half of the year saw changes to strength and recipes almost on a weekly basis.

It’s a nightmare for me when I’m researching. In a normal year, little changes at a brewery.  A dozen or so snaps is sufficient to capture all the beers and recipe variations. The later years of WW II demand far more photos to make sure nothing is missed. It quadruples my work, at least.

For a Scottish beer, this has a very complicated grist. Three types of malt and five types of sugar. As usual, I’ve substituted invert sugars for proprietary sugars. The original contained 2.5 cwt Durax, 2.5 cwt CDM, 2 cwt maltosan. 2.5 cwt DL and 6.5 cwt Penang. The Penang is easy – that’s a type of cane sugar. I know that CDM is a pretty dark proprietary sugar and that DL is a very dark one. The Durax, DCDM and maltosan I replaced with No. 3 invert, DL with No. 4 invert.

The poor attenuation was becoming typical of Scottish Stouts. It rarely poked its head much over the 50% parapet. The resulting ABV – just over 3% in this case – is pretty pathetic for a beer of 1048º.

The hopping has been greatly reduced from the pre-war version, which had roughly three times as many hops. Which, coupled with the poor attenuation, must have left a very sweet, sticky beer. The variety of hops is a pure guess. By the latter stages of the war pretty much only English hops were used. For a beer like this, Fuggles are the obvious choice.

After the war, Scottish Stouts would become even more poorly attenuated, lower in gravity and just about unintoxicating.

1917 Thomas Usher 54/- Stout
pale malt 5.50 lb 57.89%
black malt 0.75 lb 7.89%
crystal malt 60L 0.50 lb 5.26%
cane sugar 1.00 lb 10.53%
No. 3 invert sugar 1.25 lb 13.16%
No. 4 invert sugar 0.50 lb 5.26%
Fuggles 180 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 60 min 0.50 oz
Fuggles 30 min 0.50 oz
OG 1048
FG 1024.5
ABV 3.11
Apparent attenuation 48.96%
IBU 19
SRM 34
Mash at 148º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 180 minutes
pitching temp 60º F
Yeast WLP028 Edinburgh Ale

Friday, 13 January 2017

Whitbread’s brewery in 1960 (part four)

There’s rather more text this time.

1960 was a strange time for Whitbread, being just about when it started its bid to become a national brewing force.

“Whitbread's own a large fleet of vehicles which cover over 6,000,000 miles in a year. The vehicles total 513 and range in size from the giant 80-barrel tankers (each holding 2,886 gallons) to the smaller 3-ton lorries carrying draught or bottled beer. In 1954, the Company began their service to the Continent by night ferry and, now, as many as ten tankers a week are shipped from Dover to Dunkirk en route to Belgium. Altogether, Whitbread's beer is exported to sixty-three countries. It is interesting to record that by 1796 their beer was being sent to the Continent, South Africa, the Americas, Australia, New Zealand, India and the Far East.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

It sounds like Whitbread were using 100% road transport. Fifty years earlier, I’m sure that they would have been shifting the majority of their beer by rail. Though, unlike many breweries, Whitbread never had a rail connection at the brewery itself. That wasn’t possible due to its location in the middle of the city.

Ten 80-barrel tankers a week adds up to around 40,000 barrels over  a year going to Belgium. Though it does say up to ten tankers, Presumably the actual amount sent was less than that.

I’d love to know which those 63 countries were. The USA and Belgium, for sure. Probably France and Italy, too. The rest are anyone’s guess. As Britain still had a fair bit of its empire back then, many export destination were probably British possessions.

“Whitbread's also maintain sixteen horse-drawn drays (with a stable of thirty Shire horses), which deliver beer daily to the Company's public-houses within a three-mile radius of Chiswell Street. The horses, standing 18 hands high, are used each year to haul the Lord Mayor's Coach and, on special ceremonial occasions, the Speaker's Coach.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

Doubtless the main reason Whitbread hung onto their shire horses was because of their ceremonial use. Which was naturally great free publicity for the company.

“A great tradition of the Company is their reception of visitors, both from this country and from overseas. In view of the increasing number (last year there were more than 6,000), the Company have transformed part of the Chiswell Street cellars into a reception area.”
The Sphere - Saturday 23 July 1960, page 35.

London’s large breweries had long been a tourist attraction. In the 19th century, when Barclay Perkins was one of the largest breweries in the world, it was one of the must-see sights for those visiting London. Showing visitors around remains an important promotional tool for many breweries.

Thursday, 12 January 2017

Scottish breweries in 1874

The Scottish brewing industry in the 20th century was very concentrated, with virtually nothing outside the heavily populated central belt. Not such a surprise, really, as it contained most of the country’s large urban areas such as Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dundee.

Eventually large swathes of the country had no breweries at all. In the 1870’s things weren’t quite that bad, but the process of concentration in the more populated areas was already underway. And a couple of towns – Edinburgh and Alloa – were beginning to dominate the industry. While Glasgow, the most populous city in Scotland, had surprisingly few brewers.

Here’s a breakdown by region:

Scottish breweries by region in 1874
north central west coast south
27 79 17 7

You can see that more than 50% of the breweries were in the central belt. There were still a surprising number of breweries in the North, but these were mostly in Aberdeenshire. The Highlands was limited to a couple of breweries in Inverness.

Here’s the full table of all 130 breweries:


Scottish breweries in 1874
brewery address town council area
Black William and Co.  Aberdeen Aberdeen
Cowie Alexander Aberdeen Aberdeen
Elsmie George and Co. Aberdeen Aberdeen
James William and Co.  Aberdeen Aberdeen
Marshall, Thomson and Co.  Aberdeen Aberdeen
Palmer W. J.  Aberdeen Aberdeen
Banff Brewery Company Banff Aberdeenshire
Ingram James Cullen Banff Aberdeenshire
Spence Alexander Huntly Aberdeenshire
Donald and Co.  New mill Old Deer Aberdeenshire
Milne William Biffie Old Deer Aberdeenshire
Philip Bros.  Port Elphinstone Old Meldrum Aberdeenshire
Hunter John Peterhead Aberdeenshire
Wallace James Peterhead Aberdeenshire
Davidson John Brechin Angus
Durie Alexander Brechin Angus
Nelson and Co.  Lawrencekirk Brechin Angus
Ogilvy James Blairgowrie Forfar Angus
Robertson Henry West High street Forfar Angus
Ross James Helen street Forfar Angus
Ross William and Co.  Montrose Angus
Ewing Hugh Catrine Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Gowans John and Co.  Grange street Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Irwine Brewery Company Irwine Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Paxton George, and Sons Richardland Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Smith John Wallacetown Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Watson James and Co.  Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Younger Geo. and Son Ayr Ayrshire and Arran
Young D. B.  Newton Ayrshire and Arran
Arrol Archibald Alloa Clackmannanshire
Blair Alexander Alloa Clackmannanshire
Maelay James Alloa Clackmannanshire
Forbes S.  Alloa Clackmannanshire
McNellari John and Co.  Alloa Clackmannanshire
Meiklejohn R. and Son Alloa Clackmannanshire
Gallaway and Knox Cainbus Tullibody Clackmannanshire
Knox Robert and Son Cambus Tullibody Clackmannanshire
Corson William and Co.  Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway
McDonald Wm.  Castle Douglas Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway
Rennie James Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway
Turner William Dumfries Dumfries and Galloway
Paterson William and Co.  Langholm Dumfries and Galloway
Solomon W. T.  Newton Stewart Dumfries and Galloway
Campbell John Stranraer Dumfries and Galloway
Martin Thomas Wigtown Dumfries and Galloway
McKean T. C.  Gatehouse Wigtown Dumfries and Galloway
Ballingall and Son Dundee Dundee
Gray William Broughty Ferry Dundee Dundee
Henderson Jane Dundee Dundee
Ure William Hawkhill Dundee Dundee
Whitton George Dundee Dundee
Wills Mrs. M.  Dundee Dundee
Cunningham W.  Athelstaniford Haddington East lothian
Dudgeon E. Belhaven Haddington East lothian
Renton Thomas Chirnside Haddington East lothian
Richardson James Haddington East lothian
Steel Wm.  West Barns Haddington East lothian
Cunningham C.  North Berwick East Lothian
Fowler John and Co.  Prestonpans East Lothian
Aitchison John Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Bernard Thomas Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Campbell Arch.  Cowgate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Carmichael Thos.  Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Dick C. and Son Robertson's close Edinburgh Edinburgh
Drybrough and Co.  Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Edinburgh Brewery Company Edinburgh Edinburgh
Edinburgh and Leith Brewery Company Edinburgh Edinburgh
Jeffery J. and Co.  Grassmarket Edinburgh Edinburgh
McEwan Wm.  Fountain bridge Edinburgh Edinburgh
McLeod T. and Co.  Drumdryan Edinburgh Edinburgh
McMillan R. and Co.  Summerhall Edinburgh Edinburgh
Melvin James Boroughloch Edinburgh Edinburgh
Morison and Thomson Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Moyes Robert Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Muir Jas. and Son Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Nicholson David Abbey hill Edinburgh Edinburgh
Paxton William Pleasance Edinburgh Edinburgh
Raeburn W. and J.  Cowgate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Ritchie George Pleasance Edinburgh Edinburgh
Simson James Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Steel, Coulson and Co.  Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Usher J. and T.  Edinburgh Edinburgh
Younger W. and Co.  Canongate Edinburgh Edinburgh
Younger Robert Crofton Edinburgh Edinburgh
McNair J. and Co.  St. Anthony street Leith Edinburgh
Aitken James and Co.  Falkirk Falkirk
Key James Crail Anstruther Fife
Lawson James Leslie Auchtermuchty Fife
Mitchell R. and J.  Cupar Auchtermuchty Fife
Brown J. G.  East Wemyss Leven Fife
Ireland D. S.  Argyle street St. Andrews Fife
Laing Francis Seggie St. Andrews Fife
Greig Andrew Dunfermline Fifie
Elder James Dunfermline Fifie
Ainslie Geo. and Watson Andrew South Kinning place Glasgow Glasgow
Baird Hugh and Co.  Canal Basin Glasgow Glasgow
Gillespie, Gray and Co.  796 Gallowgate Glasgow Glasgow
Lynch Owen Gallowgate Glasgow Glasgow
Prentice Jas. E.  109 Main street Glasgow Glasgow
Scott William 3 Duncan street Glasgow Glasgow
Steel, Coulson and Co.  80, Canning street Glasgow Glasgow
Tennent Hugh, jun.  Wellshot, Cambuslang Glasgow Glasgow
Tennent J. and R.  Well park Glasgow Glasgow
Wordie Peter Petershill Glasgow Glasgow
Black George Thornbush Inverness Highland
Buchanan John Haugh Inverness Highland
Black Peter and A.  Greenock Inverclyde
Whitelaw K.  Fisher row Dalkeith Midlothian
Arnott Henry and Co.  Gallon Crook Elgin Moray
Hossack John Forres Elgin Moray
Young A. and J.  Elgin Moray
Eadie Rob. and Sons Blackford Crieff Perth and Kinross
Eadie William Blackford Crieff Perth and Kinross
Sharp, Rob. and Dan.  Blackford Crieff Perth and Kinross
Hunter William Grange Perth Perth and Kinross
Muir and Martin Canal street Perth Perth and Kinross
Wright John and Co.  Methven street Perth Perth and Kinross
Sacell Brewery Company Paisley Renfrewshire
Davidson Andrew Coldstream Scottish Borders
Gray James Jedburgh Kelso Scottish Borders
Haldane William Galashiels Kelso Scottish Borders
Murray William Jedburgh Kelso Scottish Borders
Simson James Melrose Kelso Scottish Borders
Stenhouse John Ednam Kelso Scottish Borders
Winter Robert Hawick Kelso Scottish Borders
Gilroy Thomas and Co.  Lanark South Lanarkshire
Burden Ann Irvine place Stirling Stirling
Colquhoun Andrew Craigs Stirling Stirling
McNicol Robert Broad street Stirling Stirling
Gillespie Alexander Dumbarton West Dunbartonshire
Source:
The London and Suburban Licensed Victuallers' Directory H. D. Miles, 1874, page 229.

Wednesday, 11 January 2017

Let's Brew Wednesday - 1962 Whitbread Ex PA

For once, this is a Whitbread recipe that I didn’t harvest myself. As I mentioned before, this is courtesy of Peter Symons.

Rushing through the Whitbread brewing logs, I managed to miss the export Pale Ale. They probably didn’t brew it that often, which is my excuse for failing to spot it. I believe this is the beer that was intended for the Belgian market, along with Extra Stout.

It’s not a complicated recipe, just pale malt, a touch of crystal and No. 1 invert sugar. It isn’t, as you might expect, a scaled-up version of their domestic PA, containing a much less crystal malt. I guess, with the increased gravity, they didn’t need as much crystal malt for colour or body.

The original contains a small amount of hops from Alsace. But it was such a small amount – 60 lbs in a total of 1,200 lbs – that I’ve just left it out. If you feel inclined to go the full authenticity hog, use 0.25 oz. Strisselspalt and knock down the Fuggles addition by the same amount.

It’s considerably more heavily hopped than the domestic PA – 49 calculated IBU as opposed to 28. That’s fairly bitter. The dry hops are a guess as Whitbread didn’t record dry hops in their brewing logs.

This beer, unlike most of Whitbread’s range, is still brewed. Somewhere in Belgium, by AB-Inbev. How much the current version resembles that of 1962 is difficult to say. Though I doubt the Belgians are using No. 1 invert sugar. It’s probably been replaced by some sort of Belgian brewing sugar. And perhaps contains adjuncts.


1962 Whitbread Ex PA
PA malt 8.75 lb 77.23%
crystal malt 60L 0.33 lb 2.91%
no. 1 sugar 2.25 lb 19.86%
Fuggles 90 min 1.50 oz
Goldings 60 min 1.50 oz
Goldings 30 min 1.50 oz
Goldings dry hop 0.50 oz
OG 1056.8
FG 1018.4
ABV 5.08
Apparent attenuation 67.61%
IBU 49
SRM 5
Mash at 150º F
Sparge at 170º F
Boil time 90 minutes
pitching temp 62º F
Yeast Wyeast 1099 Whitbread ale

Tuesday, 10 January 2017

Whitbread beers in 1960 – the one that got away

The internet is a wonderful thing. No sooner had I published my post about Whitbread’s beers in 1960 than a brewing log for Ex PA appeared in my email inbox.

Courtesy of Peter Symons, author of the excellent Bronzed Brews, a book on historic Australian beers. He has a collection of brewing records to rival mine. And fortunately hadn’t overlooked Ex PA as I had.

It’s easy to miss stuff. Especially when you rattle through brewing records at the speed I do. I only ever had limited time at the London Metropolitan Archives – 3 or 4 hours at most. I’d have 4 or 5 minutes to photograph each Whitbread brewing book. Often I’d be taking snaps so quickly, that the limiting factor was how quickly my camera reset for the next photo.

It’s not much fun. No that’s not true, it’s no fun at all. I’d usually end a session with an aching back and hands black with filth. I learned early on to always dress in black for archive visits. Otherwise I’d look like I’d just finished a shift down the pit. (My Dad really did go down the pit. Just the once. He liked it so much he joined the navy.)

The beer I’d missed was the Pale Ale Whitbread brewed for the Belgian market. A market so important that they owned two bottling stores in the country. The beer itself is not far off a pre-WW I PA. In 1914, Whitbread PA had an OG of 1061º, just a little higher than EX PA. The second-class Whitbread Pale Ale, 2PA, was weaker than this beer at 1053º.

As a general rule, beers for export markets, particularly Belgium, tended to remain at pre-WW I strengths, even in the 1950’s and 1960’s. Which I suppose is where my assumption, when younger, that export beers were always stronger than domestic versions. That wasn’t true in the 19th century.

Well that’s been a bit rambly. I need to stop now because the Sunday dinner veg are just about done. I’ll leave you with the updated table:


Whitbread beers in 1960 (and 1962)
Beer Style OG FG ABV App. Atten-uation lbs hops/ qtr hops lb/brl Pitch temp colour
Best Ale Mild 1030.6 1010.0 2.73 67.32% 5.67 0.70 64º 110
ES Stout 1055.9 1015.5 5.34 72.27% 5.96 1.36 64º 300
FB Brown Ale 1033.8 1008.5 3.35 74.85% 5.45 0.73 64º 110
KKKK Strong Ale 1051.8 1016.0 4.74 69.11% 7.50 1.56 62º 135
MS Stout 1041.9 1012.0 3.96 71.36% 5.96 1.03 64º 250
Mackeson Stout 1046.4 1019.2 3.51 58.62% 300
PA Pale Ale 1039.2 1013.0 3.47 66.84% 5.68 0.90 62º 23
Ex PA Pale Ale 1056.8 1018.4 5.08 67.61% 8.89 2.08 62º 23
WOS Stout 1038.5 1011.5 3.57 70.13% 8.68 1.38 64º 225
WPA Pale Ale 1035.5 1008.0 3.64 77.46% 8.63 1.25 64º 20
Sources:
Whitbread Gravity book held at the London Metropolitan Archives, document number LMA/4453/D/02/002.
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number LMA/4453/D/01/127.
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number LMA/4453/D/01/130.
Whitbread brewing record held at the London Metropolitan Archives document number LMA/4453/D/09/136.